Friday, December 18, 2009

Detergents are surface active compounds which get orient at the interface (between water and air) and reduce interfacial tension. It removes dirt from the surface of the textile material by emulsification and suspends the dirt in cleaning liquid.

Classification of Detergent:

Detergents are classified mainly in two- 1. Ionic 2. Non-ionic.
Ionic detergent also divided into three – 1. Anionic 2. Cationic 3. Amphoteric.

1. Anionic Detergent: After being ionized, anion is the dominating ion. For example – Soap. The reaction is-
C17H35CooNa  C17H35Coo- + Na+

C17H35Coo- this portion is very large and dominating ion.

2. Cationic Detergent: After being ionized, cation is the dominating ion. Example- Catyl Pyridinium Chloride.
3. Amphoteric Detergent: Soluble in water and produces both cation & anion. This detergent –a) posses affinity to wool and cellulose fibres. B) Has lubricating properties. C) Behave like anionic in the alkaline solution.
4. Non-ionic Detergent: When dissolved, get oriented at the surface and reduce surface tension. Don’t get ionized and contains hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail.
Here Hydrophobic means it does not attract the water and the Hydrophillic means it attracts the water

Digital Printing

Due to the complexity of the printing with several so called dyes the printer are inclining to the pigment printing. Now a day, the percentage of using the pigment printing are increasing day by day because of the abundance of organic pigments and the binders that are used during printing textiles. There is always having a risk with using general dyestuffs as printing in case of the finishing treatment like fixing steam and washing that must have to be implemented. Dyes are selected for printing by following the ability of the dyes that they are reproducible or not in case of different variations or the fabric and color condition. Researchers found from a survey that, the Azoic dyes is used in textile printing industry about 3%, disperse dyes are used about 10%, Vat dyes are used about 9%, Reactive Dyes are used about 25%. And the extent of the using of pigments in printing is about 50%. Pigment printing has wide range of uses. The garments of the women which are made by cotton, polyester or viscose blends are printed by pigments if the medium color depths are needed. Decorative curtain, towels are printed by pigments. Pigment printing also used in bed linen, aprons, children’s garments, night wear dresses, various cottons and cellulose materials.

Some advantages of pigment printing:
1. The great advantages of pigment printing are, if any mistakes are found during printing process, it can be easily detected.
2. The process of pigment printing is very fast and economical as sampling can be done quickly and don’t need the washing.
3. If the pigment print paste are created by proper process by selecting materials than it will have exclusive light fastness and other basic fastness properties also.
4. Pigment print is very reliable and needs less labors and equipments.

Some disadvantages of pigment printing:
1. Handling properties of the pigment printing is rough because of having excessive cross linking agents.
2. Creates problem on the roller printing because of the bulky products and more engraved rollers.
3. It is not possible to apply it directly on the fabric. Binder must be used to apply the pigment dye on the fabric. Thus, a coat is created on the surface of the fabric.
4. During second time printing it has very low effect that is not desirable.

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Dabu Printing

Dabu Printing
"Dabu" a mud resist process by using wood block.

The Process of Dabu Printing starts with the preparation of mud resist the clay is prepared by finely sieving it. Calcium hydroxide (Chuna in Hindi), naturally pounded wheat chaff (Beedan in hindi), and gum (gound in hindi) are the main interdients to make the mud resist. The dug out mud from the dry pond is soaked in water in a separate tank overnight. The mud resist is freshly prepared before every printing. A mixture of beedan and gound are along with mud are doughed to make a sticky paste.

Application of mud resist onto fabric TThe mixture is now ready for dabu printing. The mud resist being applied onto the fabrics using wood blocks. Either the dabu printing is done ona single table while sitting or on a running table. This depends upon the space availability and comfort an individual printer. To quickly dry the paste, saw dust is being applied to places where the mud resist is printed. The saw dust also acts as a binder which prevents color penetration while dyeing. The application of mud resist onto the fabric is followed by dyeing the fabric in a cauldron of dye. The process may be repeated for double dabu and triple dabu and hence forth. After every dyeing the fabric is thoroughly washed so as to remove the mud application. Finally the non dyed part where the resist has been applied is revealed after the washing. some of the color penetrates onto the fabric caused by mud cracking. The result is veining which gives it batik like look to the fabric.

Monday, December 7, 2009

all about textile: Pichwai

all about textile: Pichwai



Pichhwais represent a unique form of textile art which originated at Shrinathji temple in Nathdwara a little over three centuries ago. Nathdwara is some 48 km northeast of Udaipur in the Rajsamand district of Rajasthan.
The temple dedicated to Lord Krishna was named Nathdwara because Lord Krishna is also known as ‘Nath’ and ‘Nathdwara’ means ‘Gateway to God.’ Nathdwara is believed to be one of the richest Hindu temples in India next only to Tirupati Devasthanam in Andhra Pradesh.Pichhwais are large devotional cloth hangings which form the background for Lord Krishna’s icon in Pushti Marg temples. Pichhwai literally translates to ‘at the back.’ Traditionally, pichhwais were painted on woven cotton cloth. The cloth used to be coated with a mixture of gum Arabic and rice floor to create an even surface. Colour pigments obtained from vegetables and minerals were then applied on them with a brush
Pichhwais usually depict 24 scenes from Lord Krishna’s life related to some festival or holy day. At the centre of these pichhwais is either a stylized image or a symbolic representation of Lord Krishna. Dark clouds, dancing peacock, Kadamba tree etc. symbolize Lord Krishna in these paintings. The pichhwais are changed from time to time depending upon the day, season and occasion to create different moods and ambience.
Lord Krishna is the most loved of the nine incarnations of Lord Vishnu for his childhood antics and pranks; his stories of love, friendship and fight against evil forces during his adolescence as a cowherd; and, his philosophical discourses and political manoeuvres as the charioteer of Arjuna, one of the greatest warriors of Mahabharata fame.
Lord Krishna’s personality was so popular and powerful that everything associated with him has been immortalized in art, literature and culture of India. Butter, flute, peacock feather, cows, cowherds, milkmaids—literally everything associated with Lord Krishna has left an indelible mark on our culture.
Srinathji is the presiding deity of the Pushti Marg sect which worships Lord Krishna in the form of a child divinity. The Pushti Marg was founded in the sixteenth century by Vallabhacharya (1479-1531) who was also known a Mahaprabhuji. Pushti Marg means “The Path of Grace.” It is a vaishnavite sect whose cult figure is Lord Krishna. The Pushti Marg sect worships Lord Krishna as a living child divinity.
Together with Shankaracharya, Ramanujacharya, Madhavacharya and Nimbarkaracharya, Vallabhacharya was one of the five main acharyas of the Bhakti movement which led to the resurgence of Hinduism in India in the medieval period.
The black stone image of Shrinathji in Nathdwara was originally consecrated by Vallabhacharya in Mathura which is the birth place of Lord Krishna where decorative clothes were used as backdrop for the image.
Fearing vandalism by Aurangazeb in 1691, the Pushti Marg sect in Mathura decided to shift the image of Shrinathji to a safer haven. The image of Shrinathji was sent to Udaipur (the capital of Mewar in Rajashan) which was believed to be a safe sanctuary for the image. Mewar was the only region in northern India which did not yield to Mughal onslaughts.
However, the wheels of the chariot carrying the image sank into the ground at Nathdwara about 48 km northeast of Udaipur. No matter what the custodians of this image did, the wheels of the chariot would not move. Taking this as a divine signal, Srinathji’s temple was raised at the same spot where it stands to this day. Before construction of the temple this place was called Sihar.
Sariज्ञानकोश: - The Indological Knowledgebase
Sari has two meanings:
• name of an Indian garment worn by women.
• the capital of the Iranian province of Mazandaran, see Sari (city).
{{This article largely deals with the sari as a clothing worn by women in the Indian subcontinent}}
A sari (also spelled saree) is a garment worn in special folds by a large number of women in the India. It is usually 5-6 yard of unstiched cloth worn over a blouse that comes a little below the breastbone, and a petticoat as a lower garment beneath the drape.

Types of saris

The classic saree
The classic saree or ‘Nivi drape’ consists of a single strip of cloth, draped below the navel and around the hips to form the lower section of the clothing. More drapery is wrapped over this, with several folds of elegant pleats in the front, tucked over a petticoat. This gracefully accentuates the contours of the person wearing it. The word ‘nivi’ means or refers to, the flowering pleats of the saree that hangs below the navel held on by a knot in ancient saris. The Pallu or pallav is the portion of the saree which is draped diagonally in the front. It is worn across the right hip to over the left shoulder, along the navel and partially over the midriff, partly baring them. The long end of the pallu hanging from the back of the shoulder is heavily embroidered and intricately decorated. The term ‘nivi’ was brought into the mainstream by the researcher Kamla .S. Dongerkerry, in 1959, in her treatise on the Indian Sari. The saree is modestly sensuous and elegantly conservative. This balanced combination has led to its continuation for a very long time. .

Various types
There are various styles in making and wearing a sari. These are determined as much by geographical location in India as by tradition and taste. Different styles include, kanchivaram, patola, hakoba, zari, and others.
The French cultural Anthropologist and most extensive researcher of the saree, Chantal Boulanger, details several broad families of Sarees, in her seminal work, Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, (1997). These broad families of sarees are: the dhoti family (eg: Brahmin sarees from Tamil Nadu in South India), Dravidian saris (eg: Pinkosu saris from Tamil Nadu), nivi saris (sarees of Andhra Pradesh in South India), the tribal saris (eg: Coorg Saris of Madikeri), and the Gond related family of sarees (the saris worn by Maharashtrian women from Mul). The ‘Nivi style’ or the classic ‘Nivi saree,’ is today the most popular form of wearing the saree.
Madisaar - 9-yard sari worn by Brahmin community [1]
Origins and history
The saree is probably the longest running and oldest apparel in the world. Its earliest depiction is perhaps the Indus valley figurine, showing a priest with saree with flower pattern, indicating the likely origins of the sari in the Indian subcontinent. The oldest South Indian Epic, the Silappadhikaram, describes the ethos of South Indian sari beauty. The Kadambari by Banabhatta, describes exquisite drapery of women in the region south of the vindhyas. The clothing of ancient Indian women in the age of the Mauryan dynasty and Gupta Empire did not cover their stomachs. The upper garment of women was a scarf like cloth called the Uttariya, along with a breast band called the Sthanapattam or stanapatta. This was a garment tied in a knot at the back, and the lower garment consisted of a dhoti like clothing. The word sari comes from the ancient Tamil term siri or seere. Several references indicate that during the sangam period in ancient South India, a single piece of clothing served as both lower garment and head covering, leaving the bosom and midriff completely uncovered. This ancient form of the pallu-less saree was almost completely preserved as traditional clothing in Kerala, in South India till the 1970’s. It was in the form of a two-piece mundum-neriyathum, with a gold-bordered shawl. The pallu was added much later to the saree.

The traditional philosophy
The saree is the finest expression of Hindu philosophy, which is essentially, the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body and Femininity-motherhood (see Devi). In ancient Indian philosophy, as expressed in the Natya Shastra, the navel of the Supreme Being is considered as the source of life and creativity. Hence by tradition, the stomach and the navel is to be left unconcealed, though the philosophy behind the sari has largely been forgotten. This makes the realization of ‘sharira-mandala,’ where in ‘Angikam bhuvanam yasya’ (the body as the world) unites with the ‘sharira-mandala’ ( the whole universe). The Swiss psychoanalyst, Carl Gustav Jung, describing the sensuous beauty of the saree, said: "It would be a loss to the whole world if the Indian woman should cease to wear her native costume. India is practically the only civilized country where one can see on living models how woman can and should dress".
There are a few important aspects of a sari. The pallu which is the free end of the sari can be worn over the head, as a mark of respect for elders, as a custom, or for style, or be left to hang free at the back. The other important, and much looked for, part of the sari is the border. It is usually adorned by prints and designs which are different from the overall pattern on the sari. This adornment can sometimes take the form of intricate patterns handcrafted using delicate gold thread known as zari. In this way, the border of a sari is often a status symbol.
•Ambrose, Kay (1950) Classical Dances and Costumes of India. A. & C. Black, London.
•Beck, Brenda. (1976) The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu. Contributions to Indian Sociology 10(2): 213-43.
•Bharata (1967). The Natyashastra [Dramaturgy], 2 vols., 2nd. ed. Trans. by Manomohan Ghosh. Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya.
•Boulanger, Chantal; (1997) Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, Shakti Press International, New York.
•Craddock, Norma. (1994). Anthills, Split Mothers, and Sacrifice: Conceptions of Female Power in the Mariyamman Tradition. Dissertation, U. of California, Berkeley.
•Dongerkerry, Kamala, S. (1959) The Indian sari. New Delhi.
•Parthasarathy, R. (1993) The Tale of an Anklet: An Epic of South India- The Cilappatikaram of Ilanko Atikal, (Translations from the Asian Classics), Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 1993.